10 Ancient Wisdom Teachings


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Count Of St Germain

Count Of St Germain Cover
The Count of St. Germain has been variously described as a courtier, adventurer, charlatan, inventor, alchemist, pianist, violinist and amateur composer, but is best known as a recurring figure in the stories of several strands of occultism - particularly those connected to Theosophy and the White Eagle Lodge, where he is also referred to as the Master Rakoczi or the Master R and as one of the Masters of the Ancient Wisdom, is credited with near god-like powers and longevity. Some sources write that his name is not familial, but was invented by him as a French version of the Latin Sanctus Germanus, meaning "Holy Brother."

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Al Nabarawi

Al Nabarawi Cover
Ibn Muhammad al-Shaizari Al-Nabarawi, Al-Nabarawi (d.1126) Muslim Pharmacist and Alchemist from Baghdad was a devoted admirer of Al-Razi, he invented a new process of producing Naphta (Naft), from Petrolium.

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Using Alchemy

Using Alchemy

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Quicksilver Mercury

Quicksilver Mercury

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Alchemy Sacred Secrets Revealed Part 4

Alchemy Sacred Secrets Revealed Part 4

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How To Make Copper Carbonate

How To Make Copper Carbonate

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Mendelevium In Periodic Table

Mendelevium In Periodic Table

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Alchemical Symbol

Alchemical Symbol Image
Alchemical symbols, originally devised as part of the protoscience of alchemy, were used to denote some elements and some compounds until the 18th century. Note that while notation like this was mostly standardized, style and symbol varied between alchemists, so this page lists the most common.

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Course Of Alchemy

Course Of Alchemy Cover

Book: Course Of Alchemy by Jose Luis Ramos

Dear student of Alchemy. The fact that you receive this unit it implies that you have assimilated the teachings of the previous one and overcome with success the test of corresponding evaluation. For it, I allow me to talk to you with the trust and the opening own among siblings of the sacred order of the Alchemy. Although you have not received the Initiation that, in an indelible way, it transforms you into a Philosopher by the Fire, when having discovered the Initial Matter (true key to accede to the Work), have you learned the philosophical principles that govern our Road and have you manifested your determination of continuing, you have reached a knowledge that it have been denied along the times to many investigators and erudites. On the other hand, Internet is, at the present time, the translation of the old medieval zoco, where there is of everything (good and bad) and anyone can enter and to expose its " goods ". The page of GAP is one more among so many others which it mix the Alchemy with the Magic, the Astrology and all type of esoterisms (there are serious pages, but they are few...) and the possible visitors don't have trial elements to be able to appreciate the seriousness of our offer. Also, the net is full with places " free " and all that you gets paid, still that it is moderate, it always sounds to suspect... For everything it, we reiterate our congratulation to you and we wish you a fortunate Road whose unavoidable difficulties have begun to overcome.

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Key 3 By Basil Valentine

Key 3 By Basil Valentine Cover By means of water fire may be extinguished, and utterly quenched. If much water be poured upon a little fire, the fire is overcome, and compelled to yield up the victory to the water. In the same way our fiery sulphur must be overcome by means of our prepared water. But, after the water has vanished, the fiery life of our sulphurous vapour must triumph, and again obtain the victory. But no such triumph can take place unless the King imparts great strength and potency to his water and tinges it with his own colour, that thereby he may be consumed and become invisible, and then again recover his visible form, with a diminution of his simple essence, and a development of his perfection. A painter can set yellow upon white, and red or crimson upon yellow; for, though all these colours are present, yet the latter prevails on account of its greater intensity. When you have accomplished the same thing in our Art, you have before your eyes the light of wisdom, which shines in the darkness, although it does not burn. For our sulphur does not burn, but nevertheless its brilliancy is seen far and near. Nor does it colour anything until it has been prepared, and dyed with its own colour, which it then imparts to all weak and imperfect metals. This sulphur, however, cannot impart this colour until it have first by persevering labour been prevailed upon to abjure its original colour. For the weaker does not overcome the stronger, but has to yield the victory to it. The gist of the whole matter lies in the fact that the small and weak cannot aid that which is itself small and weak, and a combustible substance cannot shield another substance from combustion. That which is to protect another substance against combustion must itself be safe from danger. The latter must be stronger than the former, that is to say, it must itself be essentially incombustible. He, then, who would prepare the incombustible sulphur of the Sages, must look for our sulphur in a substance in which it is incombustible -- which can only be after its body has been absorbed by the salt sea, and again rejected by it. Then it must be so exalted as to shine more brightly than all the stars of heaven, and in its essence it must have an abundance of blood, like the Pelican, which wounds its own breast, and, without any diminution of its strength, nourishes and rears up many young ones with its blood. This Tincture is the Rose of our Masters, of purple hue, called also the red blood of the Dragon, or the purple cloak many times folded with which the Queen of Salvation is covered, and by which all metals are regenerated in colour. Carefully preserve this splendid mantle, together with the astral salt which is joined to this sulphur, and screens it from harm. Add to it a sufficient quantity of the volatility of the bird; then the Cock will swallow the Fox, and, having been drowned in the water, and quickened by the fire, will in its turn be swallowed by the Fox.

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Alchemical Poetry Lead From Metallic Verses

Alchemical Poetry Lead From Metallic Verses Cover Doubt is the alchemical substance out of which revelation is born. Lead from Metallic verses Gravity is more than some faceless stranger Tugging at my feet. It is a depth into which I sometime fall Surprising myself with words that well up From the ground. Gravity is the lead Of my heaviest thoughts. A pot hole in the road Into which I sometimes fall apart Laying at the bottom of a well Looking up to the day That is no bigger than a small hole At the top of my head.

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Visualization In Medieval Alchemy

Visualization In Medieval Alchemy Cover

Book: Visualization In Medieval Alchemy by Barbara Obrist

This paper explores major trends in visualization of medieval theories of natural and artificial transformation of substances in relation to their philosophical and theological bases. The function of pictorial forms is analyzed in terms of the prevailing conceptions of science and methods of transmitting knowledge. The documents under examination date from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century. In these, pictorial representations include lists and tables, geometrical figures, depictions of furnaces and apparatus, and figurative elements mainly from the vegetable and animal realms. An effort is made to trace the earliest evidence of these differing pictorial types.

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Black Powder Or Blackpowder Or Gunpowder

Black Powder Or Blackpowder Or Gunpowder Cover What is the composition of black powder ? The French call it either poudre a canon (gunpowder) or poudre noire (blackpowder). The loose powder was called serpentine. The name black powder is of relatively recent origin, as it appeared only after other explosives were devised which lacked the black luster of free carbon. Obviously, the stuff wasn't called gunpowder before the gun was invented, around 1313. The invention of the gun is often credited to brother Berthold Schwarz (Schwartz), a Franciscan friar from Freiburg with a bogus last name ("Black" in German) indicating his interest in alchemy, the black art; the real name of "Black Bert" was most probably Constantine Anelzin. He "invented" gunpowder only in the sense that he found a new use for old serpentine and thus made the new name meaningful. Black powder was the first explosive ever devised, and it remained the only one for centuries. It is composed of the following three solid ingredients: * Saltpeter: KNO3 niter (or, more rarely, NaNO3 Chilean nitrate). * Sulphur: S. ["sulfur" and "sulphur" are equally acceptable spellings] * Carbon: C. Often in the impure form of charcoal from wood (willow). However, simply mixing the ingredients produces only inferior meal powder... To obtain what's now considered proper black powder, the ingedients must be "incorporated" in a damp state. This allows the application of great pressure to form a dense cake, ultimately broken down into dry grains. This process is called corning, and it was first introduced in France in 1429. Early forms of blackpowder may have existed in China around AD 700, using crude recipes calling for equal weights of the three components... Such mixtures would only burn violently without exploding... Also, explosion cannot occur if raw saltpeter is used, and the refining of saltpeter is not mentioned before 1240 in a book on military technology by the Syrian scholar Hassan Al-Rammah, entitled al-furusiyya wa al-manasib al-harbiyya. The first Chinese author to describe an explosive formula was apparently Huo Lung Ching, in 1412. In a six-page tract entitled Liber Ignium ("Book of Fires"), Marcus Graecus [an otherwise unknown author, possibly a fictitious one] describes 35 incendiary recipes, including a formula which was once standard for English blackpowder: [...] 1 lb of native sulfur, 2 lb of linden or willow charcoal, 6 lb of saltpeter, which three things are very finely powdered on a marble slab. The latin version of this pamphlet did not appear before 1280 or 1300 and may have originated around that time, although the claim has been made that it was an expanded translation by Spaniards of a more ancient Arabic text (dated AD 848) and/or a Greek version that did not include the last four formulas... Roger Bacon (c.1214-1292) investigated black powder before 1249, when he devised the recipe he communicated in 1268: 40% more saltpeter than either sulphur or carbon (7:5:5 formula by weight). However, the first unmistakable blackpowder explosive composition is the "German formula" (4:1:1) proposed by Albertus Magnus (c.1200-1280). The English standard formula around 1350 called for less sulphur and more charcoal (6:1:2). The most commonly quoted modern gunpowder composition seems to date from around 1800 and calls for 75% saltpeter (niter) oxidizer, with 10% sulfur (S) and 15% charcoal (C). The potassium sulphide solid residue forms a thick white smoke, capable of obscuring entire battlefields. Newer propellants leave little or no such residue when properly exploded. They are thus collectively known as smokeless powders. The simplest idea for a smokeless dark powder is called ammonpulver (AP) and involves ammonium nitrate (AN) with 10% to 20% charcoal, although the stoichiometry of the following reactions translates into only 7% to 13% carbon, by weight: 2 NH4NO3 + C-CO2 + 4 H2O + 2 N2 + 629.6 kJ (874.4 cal/g) NH4NO3 + C-CO + 2 H2O + N2 + 228.6 kJ (593.5 cal/g) Other smokeless powders of historical interest include the following propellants: * Guncotton, or nitrocellulose (also known as pyropowder, pyrocellulose, trinitrocellulose and cellulose nitrate) invented in 1845 by the Swiss chemist Christian Schonbein (1799-1869). * Poudre B (flakes of nitrocellulose gelatinized with ether and alcohol) invented in 1884 by Paul Vieille (1854-1934) for the 1886 Lebel rifle. * Ballistite (nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin, with diphenylamine stabilizer) invented by the Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel (1833-1896) in 1887. Sir James Dewar (1842-1923) * Cordite N (nitroguanidine, nitrocellulose, and nitroglycerin) invented by Frederick Augustus Abel and James Dewar in 1889. Sulfurless powder (12.93% carbon) would yield 772.6 cal/g, with 60% smoke: 4 KNO3 + 5 C-2 K2CO3 + 3 CO2 + 2 N2 + 1501.4 kJ It takes 92.9 g of this mix to release a mole of gas, whereas only 67.6 g of black powder would suffice (as sulfur prevents the wasteful production of carbonate).

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Alchemical Poetry Alchemy By Sara Teasdale

Alchemical Poetry Alchemy By Sara Teasdale Cover I lift my heart as spring lifts up A yellow daisy to the rain; My heart will be a lovely cup Altho' it holds but pain. For I shall learn from flower and leaf That color every drop they hold, To change the lifeless wine of grief To living gold.

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Israel Regardie And The Philosophers Stone The Alchemical Arts Brought Down To Earth

Israel Regardie And The Philosophers Stone The Alchemical Arts Brought Down To Earth Cover

Book: Israel Regardie And The Philosophers Stone The Alchemical Arts Brought Down To Earth by Joseph Lisiewski

In this book, Dr. Lisiewski delves into the hitherto unknown role Israel Regardie played in the world of Practical Laboratory Alchemy: not the world of idle speculation and so-called inner alchemy, but the realm of the test tube and the Soxhlet Extractor. Revealed for the first time are Regardie's own private alchemical experiments, his intense interaction with Frater Albertus of the Paracelsus Research Society, and later, with the author himself. All is laid plain, taken from Dr. Lisiewski's extensive personal notes and recollections of his lengthy association with both men. Learn of the first meeting between Regardie and Frater Albertus; their involvement with the Rosicrucian Order and years of struggle in Alchemy; and alchemical work they and the author explored. Such work includes preparation of the Ancient Planetary and Antimony Tinctures; the Herbal Stone; as well as the darkly fantastic processes of miniature animals and the Homunculus. With an extensive Introduction by Mark Stavish, well-known author and Director of the Institute for Hermetic Studies, this book is destined to become the definitive work on Israel Regardie and his virtually unknown role in the practice of the Secret Art and Science that is Laboratory Alchemy, while revealing processes in the practical application of this occult work that has never appeared in print before! What an amazing book! In fact, it is truly unique in both its storyline and practical comprehensiveness. I had a hard time putting this one down once I had started reading it. Personally, I feel that for the occult reader, the price is an absolute steal as I would have easily paid double that and then some. This is truly an account of history intermeshed with practical alchemy (not the armchair alchemy that most waste their time pursuing). What I find most fascinating is not only the breadth of knowledge contained in the book (and within Lisiewski himself in many different areas of the occult), but also the way in which Regardie and Albertus are represented. It is human nature to place occult legends such as these on a glorious pedestal to be praised by all future generations of seekers. However, I have always respected Lisiewski's penchant for telling it like it is. He, in effect, represents them for what they truly are: Human Beings (nothing more, nothing less). Furthermore, he lifts the veil on exactly what true alchemy is all about. It is not simply for the purposes of turning lead into gold, as is so often stated by the mainstream. The fundamental basis is the spiritual unfoldment of the individual. In fact, this is absolutely necessary to achieve the alchemical results being sought in the material world. In the end, the intense, painstaking work that is inherent in the practice of alchemy leads one to something deeper. Hopefully, by reading this book one will begin to get a sense of exactly what this 'something deeper' truly is...

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The Benedictine Brother Basilius Valentinus

The Benedictine Brother Basilius Valentinus Cover The Benedictine brother Basilius Valentinus has become a legend in the history of science. But was there really a monk by that name, who lived and worked in a German monastery in the fifteenth century as the legend claims? The historians of science seem not to be able to agree. Here follows the opinion of Sylvain Matton who edited the French edition of the Triumphal Chariot of Antimony (Retz, Paris 1977): On the identity of Basilius Valentinus. "Thus, as they present themselves to us, the writings of Basil Valentine seem to have been edited by a Paracelcist at the end of the sixteenth century or the beginning of the seventeenth. We say 'as they present themselves to us', because one may not entirely exclude that more ancient writings, perhaps of the fifteenth century, have been revised, expounded upon, interpolated, even rewritten. But with this hypothesis, if one does not keep (sic) the legend of the fortuitous discovery of Valentines writings in the trunk of a pillar at the cathedral of Erfurt, it is hard to explain the absence of any manuscript, the oldest one dating from 1582."

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Alchemical Ritual

Alchemical Ritual Cover Although the alchemist, who represented the religious bent of his profession, has been viewed as a priest, the identity of his congregation remains unknown. The sources, reading somewhat like tracts of edification, transmit no detail. Some have sensed in the texts evidence of the existence of a loosely structured brotherhood. Others, above all Festugiere (1950, pp. 427–428), took the alchemical devotion (like the Hermetic) to be a cult adhered to by individuals or groups who practiced the “sacred art” and came under the spell of the mystic beliefs inherent in their work. Those nonpractitioners of alchemy who felt attracted were possibly members of the intelligentsia drawn to that particular version of modish Gnosticism. The code that the devotee observed had various specific features. They concern the transmission of the creed, first to him and then from him, and the way of life expected of a spiritual father.

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The Coelum Philosophorum Or Book Of Vexations

The Coelum Philosophorum Or Book Of Vexations Cover

Book: The Coelum Philosophorum Or Book Of Vexations by Paracelsus

THE COELUM PHILOSOPHORUM, OR BOOK OF VEXATIONS; By PHILIPPUS THEOPHRASTUS PARACELSUS. THE SCIENCE AND nature OF ALCHEMY, AND WHAT OPINION SHOULD BE FORMED THEREOF. Regulated by the Seven Rules or Fundamental Canons according to the seven commonly known Metals; and containing a Preface with certain Treatises and Appendices. YOU who are skilled in Alchemy, and as many others as promise yourselves great riches or chiefly desire to make gold and silver, which Alchemy in different ways promises and teaches; equally, too, you who willingly undergo toil and vexations, and wish not to be freed from them, until you have attained your rewards, and the fulfilment of the promises made to you; experience teaches this every day, that out of thousands of you not even one accomplishes his desire. Is this a failure of nature or of Art? I say, no; but it is rather the fault of fate, or of the unskilfulness of the operator. Since, therefore, the characters of the sign of the stars and planets of heaven, together with the other names, inverted words, receipts, materials, and instruments are thoroughly well known to such as are acquainted with this art, it would be altogether superfluous to recur to these same subjects in the present book, although the use of such signs, names, and characters at the proper time is by no means without advantage. But herein will be noticed another way of treating Alchemy different from the previous method, and deduced by Seven Canons from the sevenfold series of the metals. This, indeed, will not give scope for a pompous parade of words, but, nevertheless, in the consideration of those Canons everything which should be separated from Alchemy will be treated at sufficient length, and, moreover, many secrets of other things are herein contained. Hence, too, result certain marvellous speculations and new operations which frequently differ from the writings and opinions of ancient operators and natural philosophers, but have been discovered and confirmed by full proof and experimentation.

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Iron Gall Ink Or Indelible Ink Or Encaustum

Iron Gall Ink Or Indelible Ink Or Encaustum Cover In the first century AD, Pliny the Elder described a basic chemical demonstration of the principle behind what would become the primary ink of the Middle Ages: Papyrus soaked in tannin turns black upon contact with a solution of iron salt. This was not used for actual ink at the time of Pliny, but "gallarum gummeosque commixtio" is already mentioned as an established writing ink around AD 420, in the encyclopedia of the 7 liberal arts by Martianus Capella. However, the latest analyses have disproved dubious reports that this type of ink might have already been used on the famous Dead Sea Scrolls of Qumran (before AD 68). Because of the secondary reaction discussed below, which makes it indelible, iron ink was once known as encaustum (Latin for "burned in", from the Greek enkauston, meaning painted in encaustic and fixed with heat). This is the origin of the English word "ink" itself, and of its counterparts in a number of other languages: encre (French), inchiostro (Italian), inkt (Dutch), inkoust (Czech)... Indelible iron-gall ink is considered the most important ink in the development of Western civilization, up until the 20th century. The best iron-gall inks were far superior to most modern inks, but the corrosiveness of some compositions (discussed below) regretfully led to the abandonment of all iron-gall inks in favor of more sophisticated recipes with lesser chemical aggressivity. Iron-gall ink normally includes what is effectively a "Chinese ink" component, which provides both body (from gum arabic) and some initial coloring upon application of the ink. Otherwise, the main pigmentation of iron-gall ink comes paradoxically from water-soluble ferrous chemicals with little color of their own: When the ink dries in air, an oxidation occurs which turns these ferrous salts into insoluble ferric dark pigments. In addition, iron-gall ink may react with parchment collagen or paper cellulose, in a totally indelible way. Some poorly balanced iron-gall inks have even been observed to burn holes through paper. It has been shown that an excess of ferrous salt in iron-gall ink leaves permanent traces of active soluble salts (not properly oxidized into inert pigments) which will catalyze the slow decomposition of cellulose, especially when acidity is present. This corrosion is reduced with a proper balance in the composition of the ink. To prevent deterioration of historical iron-gall ink documents, the Netherlands Institute of Cultural Heritage (ICN) has introduced an interesting treatment, which was first used on a large scale by the conservators of the Nationaal Archief of the Netherlands: First, a saturated solution is applied which contains a calcium salt and its acid, namely: * Calcium phytate: C6H6 (PO4Ca)6 (Phytic Acid Hexa Calcium Salt). * Phytic acid: (CHOPOOHOH)6 The salt is soluble up to twice the molar concentration of the acid. This is an oxidation inhibitor which binds the metal ions. Then, acidity is neutralized with calcium bicarbonate, which creates an alkaline buffer and also leaves a phytate precipitate in the fibers, for continued oxidation protection.

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India Ink Or Chinese Ink

India Ink Or Chinese Ink Cover As early as 2500 BC, writing inks were carbon inks consisting of fine grains of carbon black [from soot] suspended in a liquid. The Latin name for this was atramentum librarium and it's now called India ink or Chinese ink. On the famous Dead Sea Scrolls of Qumran (from the third century BC to AD 68), a red version of this ink is found which uses cinnabar (HgS) instead of carbon. The idea is simple: When the liquid dries out, the solid pigment (C or HgS) remains which leaves a permanent trace. Such inks are best used on semi-absorbent stuff, like paper or papyrus (not parchment). The problem was to keep the grains in suspension long enough to apply the ink. In plain water, fine grains of carbon black would aggregate under the action of Van der Waals forces and form flakes large enough to fall quickly to the bottom of the container. This flocculation process can be prevented with an hydrophilic additive which minimizes Van der Waals interactions between the grains by coating them (as was properly explained only in the 1980s). Early ink recipes may thus have called for various plant juices instead of plain water. It turns out that gum arabic acts this way to stabilize India ink into a colloidal suspension for days or weeks... This wonderful invention is at least 4500 years old. Traditional Chinese ink is not bottled. Instead, ink is produced as needed by grinding an inkstick on an inkstone after adding a little water (the inkstone also acts as an inkwell). Chinese ink-sticks consist of a pigment (usually soot from pine, oil or lacquer) and a soluble resin which holds the dry stick together and plays a critical part in the colloidal ink suspension produced by wet grinding.

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Alchemy Ancient And Modern

Alchemy Ancient And Modern Cover

Book: Alchemy Ancient And Modern by Herbert Stanley Redgrove

IT is exceedingly gratifying to me that a second edition of this book should be called for. But still more welcome is the change in the attitude of the educated world towards the old-time alchemists and their theories which has taken place during the past few years. The theory of the origin of Alchemy put forward in Chapter I has led to considerable discussion; but whilst this theory has met with general acceptance, some of its earlier critics took it as implying far more than is actually the case. As a result of further research my conviction of its truth has become more fully confirmed, and in my recent work entitled Bygone beliefs (Rider, 1920), under the title of "The Quest of the Philosopher's Stone," I have found it possible to adduce further evidence in this connection. At the same time, whilst I became increasingly convinced that the main alchemistic hypotheses were drawn from the domain of mystical theology and applied to physics and chemistry by way of analogy, it also became evident to me that the crude physiology of bygone ages and remnants of the old phallic faith formed a further and subsidiary source of alchemistic theory. I have barely, if at all, touched on this matter in the present work; the reader who is interested will find it dealt with in some detail in "The Phallic Element in Alchemical Doctrine" in my Bygone Beliefs. In view of recent research in the domain of Radioactivity and the consequent advance in knowledge that has resulted since this book was first published, I have carefully considered the advisability of rewriting the whole of the last chapter, but came to the conclusion that the time for this was not yet ripe, and that, apart from a few minor emendations, the chapter had better remain very much as it originally stood. My reason for this course was that, whilst considerably more is known to-day, than was the case in 1911, concerning the very complex transmutations undergone spontaneously by the radioactive elements -- knowledge helping further to elucidate the problem of the constitution of the so-called "elements" of the chemist -- the problem really cognate to my subject, namely that of effecting a transmutation of one element into another at will, remains in almost the same state of indeterminateness as in 1911. In 1913, Sir William Ramsay1 thought he had obtained evidence for the transmutation of hydrogen into helium by the action of the electric discharge, and Professors Collie and Patterson 2 thought they had obtained evidence of the transmutation of hydrogen into neon by similar means. But these observations (as well as Sir William Ramsay's earlier transmutational experiments) failed to be satisfactorily confirmed; 3 and since the death of the latter, little, if anything, appears to have been done to settle the questions raised by his experiments. Reference must, however, be made to a very interesting investigation by Sir Ernest Rutherford on the "Collision of -Particles with Light Atoms,"4 from which it appears certain that when bombarded with the swiftly-moving -particles given off by radium-C, the atoms of nitrogen may be disintegrated, one of the products being hydrogen. The other product is possibly helium,5 though this has not been proved. In view of Rutherford's results a further repetition of Ramsay's experiments would certainly appear to be advisable. As concerns the spontaneous transmutations undergone by the radioactive elements, the facts appear to indicate (or, at least, can be brought into some sort of order by supposing) the atom to consist of a central nucleus and an outer shell, as suggested by Sir Ernest Rutherford. The nucleus may be compared to the sun of a solar system. It is excessively small, but in it the mass of the atom is almost entirely concentrated. It is positively charged, the charge being neutralised by that of the free electrons which revolve like planets about it, and which by their orbits account for the volume of the atom. The atomic weight of the element depends upon the central sun; but the chemical properties of the element are determined by the number of electrons in the shell; this number is the same as that representing the position of the element in the periodic system. Radioactive change originates in the atomic nucleus. The expulsion of an particle therefrom decreases the atomic weight by 4 units, necessitates (since the -particle carries two positive charges) the removal of two electrons from the shell in order to maintain electrical neutrality, and hence changes the chemical nature of the body, transmuting the element into one occupying a position two places to the left in the periodic system (for example, the change of radium into niton). But radioactivity sometimes results in the expulsion of a particle from the nucleus. This results in the addition of an electron to the shell, and hence changes the chemical character of the element, transmuting it into one occupying a position one place to the right in the periodic system, but without altering its atomic weight. Consequently, the expulsion of one and two particles from the nucleus, whilst decreasing the atomic weight of the element by 4, leaves the number of electrons in the shell, and thus the chemical properties of the element, unaltered. These remarkable conclusions are amply borne out by the facts, and the discovery of elements (called "isobares") having the same atomic weight but different chemical properties, and of those (called "isotopes") having identical chemical characters but different atomic weights, must be regarded as one of the most significant and important discoveries of recent years. Some further reference to this theory will be found in ** 77 and 81: the reader who wishes to follow the matter further should consult the fourth edition of Professor Frederick Soddy's The Interpretation of Radium (1920), and the two chapters on the subject in his Science and Life (1920), one of which is a popular exposition and the other a more technical one. These advances in knowledge all point to the possibility of effecting transmutations at will, but so far attempts to achieve this, as I have already indicated, cannot be regarded as altogether satisfactory. Several methods of making gold, or rather elements chemically identical with gold, once the method of controlling radioactive change is discovered (as assuredly it will be) are suggested by Sir Ernest Rutherford's theory of the nuclear atom. Thus, the expulsion of two -particles from bismuth or one from thallium would yield the required result. Or lead could be converted into mercury by the expulsion of one -particle, and this into thallium by the expulsion of one -particle, yielding gold by the further expulsion of an -particle. But, as Professor Soddy remarks in his Science and Life just referred to, "if man ever achieves this further control over Nature, it is quite certain that the last thing he would want to do would be to turn lead or mercury into gold -- for the sake of gold. The energy that would be liberated, if the control of these sub-atomic processes were as possible as is the control of ordinary chemical changes, such as combustion, would far exceed in importance and value the gold. Rather it would pay to transmute gold into silver or some base metal." In *101 of the book I suggest that the question of the effect on the world of finance of the discovery of an inexpensive method of transmuting base metal into gold on a large scale is one that should appeal to a novelist specially gifted with imagination. Since the words were first written a work has appeared in which something approximating to what was suggested has been attempted and very admirably achieved. My reference is to Mr. H. G. Wells's novel, The World Set Free, published in 1914. In conclusion I should like to thank the very many reviewers who found so many good things to say concerning the first edition of this book. For kind assistance in reading the proofs of this edition my best thanks are due also and are hereby tendered to my wife, and my good friend Gerald Druce, Esq., M.Sc.

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Alchemical Visualization In Tantric Buddhism

Alchemical Visualization In Tantric Buddhism Cover The visualized 'cauldron' or vessel of transformation is a skullcup, known as a kapala in Sanskrit. Impure substances symbolising mental afflictions are transmuted to pure nectar of enlightenment by the power of a fierce wind-blown fire, with the reaction being 'catalysed' by seed letters. In a typical visualisation, urine, feces, brain/marrow, semen, blood and the meats of five taboo animals are transmuted into nectar "When engaging in the generation stage practices one starts with the dissolution of everything into emptiness by reciting the mantra. This is done in order to eliminate self-grasping. From within emptiness the syllable YAM in a crescent moon arises, symbolizing wind. Then the syllable RAM in a triangle arises above it, symbolizing fire. Then from the syllable KAM arises a tripod of skulls. The skull which is the cauldron sits on the tripod. It is white on the outside and red on the inside. It is vast. In the center one pours urine in the form of the syllable HUNG. On the east one puts feces in the form of the syllable OM. In the North one puts brain in the form of the syllable KAM. In the west one puts semen in the syllable ANG. In the south one puts blood in the form of the syllable TRAM. Then one puts fire in the form of HUNG. In the center of the five nectars one places human flesh in the form of the syllable HUNG. In the southeast corner one puts cow meat in the form of the syllable LAM. In the southwest one places dog meat in the form of the syllable MAM. In the northwest one places elephant meat in the form of the syllable HAM. In the northeast one puts horse meat in the form of the syllable TAM. The wind swirls around, generating fire out of the syllable RAM. This boils the substances in the skull cup, melting the five meats and nectars. As they boil, their color becomes orange red like the rays of the rising sun. The mandala of the moon is placed as a lid on the skull. On top of it are a white OM, a red AH, and a blue HUNG. Light rays radiate from the three syllables in the ten directions, reaching the Buddhas and bodhisattvas whose wisdom nectars are drawn back and dissolve into the vessels. The wisdom and samaya nectars become one and become white in color, cool in temperature, sweet in taste, and abundant in power. This becomes the collection of wealth and riches." - Tsok Practice The urine, excrement, brain, sperm and blood represent the five contaminated aggregates to be purified. They are form, feeling, perception, karmic impulses and consciousness. The five meats symbolise the five delusions, which are confusion , miserliness, attachment, jealousy and self-grasping.

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Apollonius Of Tyana

Apollonius Of Tyana Cover Concerning Apollonius and his remarkable powers, Francis Barrett, in his Biographia Antiqua, after describing how Apollonius quelled a riot without speaking a word, continues: "He traveled much, professed himself a legislator; understood all languages, without having learned them: he had the surprising faculty of knowing what was transacted at an immense distance, and at the time the Emperor Domitian was stabbed, Apollonius being at a vast distance, and standing in the market-place of the city, exclaimed, ‘Strike! strike!—’tis done, the tyrant is no more.’ He understood the language of birds; he condemned dancing and other diversions of that sort; he recommended charity and piety; he traveled over almost all the countries of the world; and he died at a very great age."

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Edward Kelley Biography

Edward Kelley Biography Cover Edward Kelley or Kelly, also known as Edward Talbot (August 1, 1555 - 1597) was a convicted criminal and self-declared spirit medium who worked with John Dee in his magical investigations. Besides the 'ability' to summon spirits or angels on a crystal ball, which John Dee so valued, Kelley also claimed to possess the secret of transmuting base metals into gold. Legends began to surround Kelley shortly after his death. His flamboyant biography, and his relative notoriety among English-speaking historians (chiefly because of his association with Dee) may have made him the source for the folklorical image of the alchemist-charlatan. Birth and Early Career A horoscope drawn up by Dee indicates that Kelley was born in Worcester on August 1, 1555. Kelley's early life is obscure, but most accounts say that he first worked as an apothecary's apprentice. He may have studied at Oxford under the name of Talbot; whether or not he attended university, Kelley was educated and knew Latin and possibly some Greek. According to several accounts, Kelley was pilloried in Lancaster for forgery or counterfeiting. With Dee in England Kelley approached John Dee in 1582, initially under the name Edward Talbot. Dee had already been trying to contact angels with the help of a "scryer" or crystal-gazer, but he had not been successful. Kelley professed the ability to do so, and impressed Dee with his first trial. Kelley became Dee's regular scryer. Dee and Kelley devoted huge amounts of time and energy in these "spiritual conferences." From 1582 to 1589, Kelley's life was closely tied to Dee's. About a year after entering into Dee's service, Kelley appeared with an alchemical book (The Book of Dunstan) and a quantity of a red powder which, Kelley claimed, he and a certain John Blokley had been led to by a "spiritual creature" at Northwick Hill. (Accounts of Kelley's finding the book and the powder in the ruins of Glastonbury Abbey were first published by Elias Ashmole, but are contradicted by Dee's diaries.) With the powder (whose secret was presumably hidden in the book) Kelley believed he could prepare a red "tincture" which would allow him to transmute base metals into gold. He reportedly demonstrated its power a few times over the years, including in Bohemia (present Czech Republic) where he and Dee resided for many years. With Dee in the Continent In 1583, Dee became acquainted with Prince Albert Lasky, a Polish nobleman interested in alchemy. Dee, along with Kelley and their families, accompanied Lasky to the Continent. Dee sought the patronage of Emperor Rudolf II in Prague and King Stefan of Poland; Dee apparently failed to impress either monarch. Dee and Kelley lived a nomadic life in Central Europe. They continued with their spiritual conferences, though Kelley was more interested in alchemy than in scrying.In 1586, Kelley and Dee found the patronage of the wealthy Bohemian count Vilem Rozmberk. They settled in the town of Trebon and continued their researches. In 1587, Kelley revealed to Dee that the angels had ordered them to share everything they had including their wives. It has been speculated that this was a way for Kelley to end the fruitless spiritual conferences so that he could concentrate on alchemy, which, under the patronage of Rozmberk was beginning to make Kelley wealthy. Dee, anguished by the order of the angels, subsequently broke off the spiritual conferences even though he did share his (beautiful) wife. He did not see Kelley again after 1588, and returned to England the following year. Apogee and fall By 1590, Kelley was living an opulent life. He received several estates and large sums of money from Rozmberk. He convinced many influential people that he was able to produce gold. Rudolf made Kelley a "Baron of the Kingdom," but eventually he tired of waiting for results. Rudolf had Kelley arrested in May of 1591 and imprisoned in Krivoklat Castle (Purglitz in German) outside Prague. Rudolf apparently never doubted Kelley's ability to produce gold on a large scale, and hoped that imprisonment would induce him to cooperate. Rudolf may also have feared that Kelley would return to England. Around 1594, Kelley agreed to cooperate and produce gold; he was released and restored to his former status. Again he failed to produce, and was again imprisoned, this time in Hnevin Castle in Most. Kelley died in 1597 at the age of forty-two. A tradition has him dying while trying to escape: the story goes that he used an insufficiently long rope to lower himself from a tower, fell and broke his leg, and died from his injuries.

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Fomepizole Cover
Fomepizole or 4-methylpyrazole is indicated for use as an antidote in confirmed or suspected methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning. It may be used alone or in combination with hemodialysis. Apart from medical uses, the role of 4-methylpyrazole in coordination chemistry has been studied.

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Ziryab Cover
Abu l-Hasan 'Ali Ibn Nafi', nicknamed Ziryab, was a Persian, Kurdish or East African polymath: a poet, musician, singer, cosmetologist, fashion designer, celebrity, trendsetter, strategist, astronomer, botanist and geographer. He was active at the Umayyad court of C'ordoba in Islamic Iberia. The name "Ziryab" (Blackbird) was given to him for his dark complexion, eloquence, and melodious voice. He first achieved notoriety at the Abbasid court in Baghdad, Iraq, his birth place, as a performer and student of the great musician and composer, Ishaq al-Mawsili. Ziryab was a gifted pupil of Ishaq al-Mawsili. He had to leave Baghdad when his skills as a musician surpassed those of his teacher. He moved to C'ordoba in southern Iberian Peninsula and was accepted as court musician in the court of Abd al-Rahman II of the Umayyad Dynasty (822-52).

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The Seven Magic Keys


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Nantenine Cover
Nantenine is an alkaloid found in the plant Nandina domestica as well as some Corydalis species. It is an antagonist at both the 1 adrenergic receptor and the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor, and blocks both the behavioural and physiological effects of MDMA in animals. File:FlattenedRoundPills. jpg This pharmacology-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. v o d o e

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