List Of Great Alchemists

List Of Great Alchemists Cover

Muhammed Ibn Umail Al Tamimi:

Muhammed ibn Umail al-Tamini was an alchemist of the tenth century. In the later European literature he is known by a number of names, including Zadith Senior and Zadith filius Hamuel (or Hamuelis). There is an allusion to him in Chaucer's Canon's Yeoman's Tale (the "book senior"); the tale itself having alchemy as a theme. Chaucer's source is said to be the Chimica senioris zadith tabula; Chaucer believed it written by a follower of Plato.

Benjamin Musaphia:

Benjamin ben Immanuel Musaphia (c. 1606 - 1675), also called Benjamin Musaphia or Mussafia and Dionysius, was a Jewish doctor, scholar and kabbalist. Musaphia was probably born in Spain. He married Sara Abigail da Silva, daughter of Semuel da Silva, in 1628. Their sons and grandsons joined the court of the Gottorps, and a daughter was married to Gabriel Milan, who would later be appointed governor of the Danish West-Indies.

Alejandro Jodorowsky:

Alejandro Jodorowsky (born 7 February 1929) is a Chilean filmmaker, playwright, composer and writer. Best known for his avant-garde films, he has been "venerated by cult cinema enthusiasts" for his work which "is filled with violently surreal images and a hybrid blend of mysticism and religious provocation.

Jabir Ibn Hayyan:

Abu Musa Jabir ibn Hayyan, (born c. 721 in Tous - died c. 815 in Kufa) was a prominent polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geologist, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician. He is considered by some to be the "father of chemistry. " His ethnic background is not clear; although some sources state that he was an Arab other sources introduce him as Persian Jabir is held to be the first practical alchemist.

Ibn Al Nadim:

Abu'l-Faraj Muhammad bin Is'haq al-Nadim, whose father was known as al-Warraq (died September 17, 995 or 998) was a Persian Shi'ite Muslim scholar and bibliographer. Some scholars regard him as a Persian but this is not certain. He is famous as the author of the Kitab al-Fihrist.


Abu 'Ali al-usayn ibn 'Abd Allah ibn Sina, known as Abu Ali Sina or, more commonly, Ibn Sina or Pour Sina, but most commonly known in English by his Latinized name Avicenna, (c. 980 - 1037) was a polymath of Persian B) D. Gutas, "Avicenna", in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Version 2006,; excerpt: "That he should have written poems in Persian, his native and everyday language, is probable" C) Ibn Sina ("Avicenna") Encyclopedia of Islam. 2nd edition. Edited by P. Berman, Th. Bianquis, C.E.

Michal Sedziwoj:

Michal Sedziw'oj (Michael Sendivogius, Sedzimir) (1566-1636) of Ostoja coat of arms was a Polish alchemist, philosopher, and medical doctor. A pioneer of chemistry, he developed ways of purification and creation of various acids, metals and other chemical compounds. He discovered that air is not a single substance and contains a life-giving substance-later called oxygen-170 years before Scheele and Priestley.

Ibn Al Wafid:

Ali Ibn al-Husain Ibn al-Wafid (997-ca.1074), known in Latin Europe as Abenguefit, was a pharmacologist and physician from Toledo. He was the vizier of Al-Mamun of Toledo. His main work is Kitab al-adwiya al-mufrada (translated into Latin as De medicamentis simplicibus). were printed in Latin more than fifty times, appearing as De Medicinis universalibus et particularibus.

Abbas Ibn Firnas:

Abbas Ibn Firnas, also known as Abbas Qasim Ibn Firnas and, was a Muslim Berber polymath: an inventor, engineer, aviator, physician, Arabic poet, and Andalusian musician. He was born in Izn-Rand Onda, Al-Andalus, and lived in the Emirate of C'ordoba. He is known for an early attempt at aviation.


Abu l-Hasan 'Ali Ibn Nafi', nicknamed Ziryab, was a Persian, Kurdish or East African polymath: a poet, musician, singer, cosmetologist, fashion designer, celebrity, trendsetter, strategist, astronomer, botanist and geographer. He was active at the Umayyad court of C'ordoba in Islamic Iberia. The name "Ziryab" (Blackbird) was given to him for his dark complexion, eloquence, and melodious voice.

August Strindberg:

Johan August Strindberg (22 January 1849 - 14 May 1912) was a Swedish playwright, novelist, and essayist. A prolific writer who often drew directly on his personal experience, Strindberg's career spanned four decades, during which time wrote over 60 plays and more than 30 works of fiction, autobiography, history, cultural analysis, and politics.

Ibn Al Baitar:

Abu Muhammad Abdallah Ibn Ahmad Ibn al-Baitar Dhiya al-Din al-Malaqi (also Ibn al-Baytar) (circa, 1188-1248) was an Andalusian scientist, botanist, pharmacist and physician. He is considered one of the greatest scientists of Al-Andalus and was a notable botanist and pharmacist of the Islamic Golden Age and Arab Agricultural Revolution.

Ibn Sahl:

Ibn Sahl (Abu Sad al-Ala ibn Sahl) (c. 940-1000) was a Muslim mathematician, physicist and optics engineer of the Islamic Golden Age associated with the Abbasid court of Baghdad. Ibn Sahl's 984 treatise On Burning Mirrors and Lenses sets out his understanding of how curved mirrors and lenses bend and focus light. Ibn Sahl is credited with first discovering the law of refraction, usually called Snell's law.

Al Masihi:

Abu Sahl Isa ibn Yahya al-Masihi al-Jurjani was a Christian physician, from Gorgan, east of the Caspian Sea, in Iran. He was the teacher of Avicenna. He wrote an encyclopedic treatise on medicine of one hundred chapters, which is one of the earliest Arabic works of its kind and may have been in some respects the model of Avicenna's Qanun. He wrote other treatises on measles, on the plague, on the pulse, etc.

Muhammad Ibn Zakariya Al Razi:

Muhammad ibn Zakariya Razi, known as Rhazes or Rasis after medieval Latinists, was a Persian physician, alchemist and chemist, philosopher, and scholar. He is recognised as a polymath, and Biographies of Razi, based on his writings, describe him as "perhaps the greatest clinician of all times.

Maslamah Ibn Ahmad Al Majriti:

Maslama al-Majriti, Al-Majriti (Arabic ) (b. Madrid - d. 1008 or 1007 CE), was an Muslim astronomer, chemist, mathematician, economist and Scholar in Islamic Spain.

Attar Of Nishapur:

Abu Hamid bin Abu Bakr Ibrahim (born 1145-46 in Nishapur Iran - died c. 1221), much better known by his pen-names Farid ud-Din and 'Attar ( - the pharmacist), was a Persian Muslim poet, theoretician of Sufism, and hagiographer from Nishapur who left an everlasting influence on Persian poetry and Sufism.

Al Tughrai:

Mu'ayyad al-Din Abu Isma'il al-Husayn ibn Ali al-Tughra'i (1061 - c 1121) was an 11th-12th century Kurdish physician. Mu'ayyad al-Din al-Tughra'i, was born in Isfahan in 1061CE, and was an important alchemist, poet, and administrative secretary (therefore the name Tughra'i'). He ultimately became the second most senior official in the civil administration of the Seljuki empire. He was, however, executed unjustifiably, according to most historians in the year 1121. After a Seljuk power struggle.


Agathodaimon (c. 300) was an alchemist in late Roman Egypt, known only from fragments of medieval alchemical treatises, chiefly the Anepigraphos, which refer to works of his believed to be from the 3rd century.

Harbi Al Himyari:

Harbi al-Himyari, was an Arab scholar from Yemen, who lived between the 7th and 8th century CE. He is famous as the teacher of the Islamic alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan, who is considered the Father of Chemistry by some. According to Holmyard nothing else is known about him.

Al Khazini:

Muslim scientist Name: Abd al-Rahman al-Khazini Title: Al-Khazini Birth: 11th century Death: 12th century Ethnicity: Byzantine Greek School tradition: Islamic science, Islamic physics, Islamic astronomy Main interests: Science, physics, astronomy, biology, alchemy, mathematics, philosophy Notable ideas: Experimental scientific method in mechanics; gravitational potential energy; gravity at a distance; Influences: Aristotle, Archimedes, Al-Quhi, Alhacen, Biruni, Omar Khayyam Influenced: Gregory Choniades, Byzantine science, Islamic science Abu al-Fath Abd al-Rahman Mansour al-Khazini or simply Abu al-Fath Khazini (flourished 1115-1130) was a scientist, astronomer, physicist, biologist, alchemist, mathematician and philosopher from Merv, then in the Khorasan province of Persia (located in today's Turkmenistan), who made important contributions to physics and astronomy.

Pseudo Geber:

Pseudo-Geber is the name assigned by modern scholars to an anonymous European alchemist born in the 13th century, sometimes identified with Paul of Taranto, who wrote books on alchemy and metallurgy, in Latin, under the pen name of "Geber". "Geber" is the shortened and Latinised form of the name Jabir ibn Hayyan, a renowned 8th century Islamic alchemist.

Mary The Jewess:

Maria the Jewess (or Maria Prophetissima, Maria Prophetissa, Mary Prophetissa, Miriam the Prophetess) is estimated to have lived anywhere between the first and third centuries A.D. She is attributed with the invention of several chemical apparatus, is considered to be the first non fictitious alchemist in the Western world, an early pioneer in chemistry, and one of the most famed women in science ever.

Ibn Wahshiyya:

Ibn Wahshiyya (also Ibn Wahshiyah) (fl. 9th century/10th century) was a Nabataean and Assyrian writer, alchemist, agriculturalist, Egyptologist and historian born at Qusayn near Kufa in Iraq. He was known in early modern Europe as Ahmad Bin Abubekr Bin Wahishih.

Al Jaldaki:

Izz al-Din Aydamir al-Jaldaki, also written al-Jildaki (d. 1342/743 H). Persian Alchemist from Khorasan, he fled his native country due to the Mongol invasion.

Ahmad Ibn Imad Ul Din:

Ahmad ibn Imad al-din, was a Persian physician and alchemist. He was probably from Nishapur. He was the author of an alchemical treatise titled On the Art of the Elixir (or Fi sina'at al-iksir) which is preserved in the National Library of Medicine. No other copy has been identified, and the author is not listed in the published bibliographies of Islamic writers on alchemy.

Count Of St Germain:

The Count of St. Germain has been variously described as a courtier, adventurer, charlatan, inventor, alchemist, pianist, violinist and amateur composer, but is best known as a recurring figure in the stories of several strands of occultism - particularly those connected to Theosophy and the White Eagle Lodge, where he is also referred to as the Master Rakoczi or the Master R and as one of the Masters of the Ancient Wisdom, is credited with near god-like powers and longevity.

Jaros Griemiller:

Jaros Griemiller of Trebsko was a Czech alchemist, remembered for his illuminated manuscript Rosarium philosophorum. He worked under Wilhelm von Rosenberg in the 1570s, and dedicated the Rosarium to him. He completed work on the manuscript in 1578 while he was working in Cesk'y Krumlov.

Hermes Trismegistus:

Hermes Trismegistus is the representation of the syncretic combination of the Greek god Hermes and the Egyptian god Thoth. In Hellenistic Egypt, the Greeks recognised the congruence of their god Hermes with the Egyptian god Thoth. Subsequently the two gods were worshipped as one in what had been the Temple of Thoth in Khemnu, which the Greeks called Hermopolis.

Melchior Cibinensis:

Melchior Cibinensis was a Hungarian alchemical writer active in the first part of the sixteenth century. He is known for the Processus sub forma missae, an alchemical mass, now dated to around 1525; it was published in the Theatrum Chemicum of 1602, and formed part of a celebrated later collection Symbola aureae mensae from 1617 of Michael Maier. The identity of Melchoir is still a subject of debate. The candidate proposed by Carl Jung was Nicolas Melchior Szebeni.

Baal Shem Of London:

Rabbi Dr. Hayyim Samuel Jacob Falk was a rabbi, Practical Kabbalist and alchemist. He was born in either F"urth in Bavaria or Pidhaytsi in Podolia and lived in Wellclose Square, London until his death. He arrived in London in 1742 after narrowly escaping being burnt at the stake by the authorities in Westphalia who charged him with sorcery.

Najm Al Din Al Qazwini Al Katibi:

Najm al-Din al-Qazwini al-Katibi (died AH 675 / 1276 CE) was a Persian Islamic philosopher and logician of the Shafi`i school. A student of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, he is the author of two major works, one on logic, Al-Risala al-Shamsiyya, and one on metaphysics and the natural sciences, Hikmat al-'Ain.

Abu Rayhan Biruni:

Abu Rayan Muammad ibn Amad Biruni, often known as Alberonius in Latin, but also Al Beruni, Al Bayrooni or variants, (born 5 September 973 in Kath, Khwarezm, died 13 December 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian Muslim scholar and polymath of the 11th century. "A Persian by birth, Biruni produced his writings in Arabic, though he knew, besides Persian, no less than four other languages.

Al Farabi:

Abu Nar al-Farabi known in the West as Alpharabius (c. 872 - between 14 December, 950 and 12 January, 951), was a Muslim polymath and one of the greatest scientists and philosophers of the Islamic world in his time. He was also a cosmologist, logician, musician, psychologist and sociologist.

Abu Al Qasim Al Zahrawi:

Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936-1013), also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian Arab physician, surgeon, chemist, cosmetologist, and scientist. He is considered the greatest medieval surgeon to have appeared from the Muslim empire, and one of the fathers of modern surgery. His comprehensive medical texts shaped both Islamic and European surgical procedures up until the Renaissance.

Bernard Trevisan:

Bernard Trevisan (Bernard of Treviso, Bernardus Trevisanus) refers to one or more Italian alchemists. These are often confused, or more accurately the name may refer to a shadowy figure or figures.

Ahmad Ibn Yahya Al Baladhuri:

Ahmad Ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri Arabic was a 9th century Persian historian. One of the eminent middle-eastern historians of his age, he spent most of his life in Baghdad and enjoyed great influence at the court of the caliph al-Mutawakkil. He traveled in Syria and Iraq, compiling information for his major works. He is regarded as a reliable source for the history of the early Arabs and the history of Muslim expansion.


Artephius (Arthephius, Artefius, Artefii) or Al-Tafiz, Ibn ar-Tafiz (probably flourished in the 1126. AD) was an independent Alchemist from Al-Andalus, he has been known as the author of numerous works of Alchemical texts, now extant only in Latin. Ibn ar-Tafiz was among the most prominent Alchemists known in the Middle Ages, he was a freelance alchemist from probably C'ordoba.


Calid is a medieval Latin transcription of the Arabic name Khalid (or Khaled).

Stephen Of Alexandria:

Stephen of Alexandria (Stephanus Alexandrinus, Stephanos of Alexandria) was a 7th century Byzantine philosopher, astronomer and teacher. He was a public lecturer in the court of Heraclius (610-641 AD). In the manuscripts he is called the Universal Philosopher. He taught on Plato and Aristotle, and on Geometry, Arithmetic, Astronomy and Music.

Zosimos Of Panopolis:

Zosimos of Panopolis was an Egyptian or Greek alchemist and Gnostic mystic from the end of the 3rd and beginning of the 4th century AD. He was born in Panopolis, present day Akhmim in the south of Egypt, ca. 300. He wrote the oldest known books on alchemy, of which quotations in the Greek language and translations into Syriac or Arabic are known.

Guido Bonati:

Guido Bonati (1223 - 1300) was professor of mathematics at Bologna and Paris and a Franciscan monk. He is probably the first astrologer to have used the midpoints in astrology. He used it to refine the timing for the military campaigns for the Count of Montefeltro Bonati announced to the count that he would repulse the enemy but would be wounded in the fray.

Abu Al Salt:

Umayya ibn Abd al-Aziz ibn Abi al-Salt al-Dani al-Andalusi was born in Denia, Al-Andalus 1068 and died 1134 Bejaia, Algeria. After the death of his father he became a student of al-Waqqashi (1017-1095) of Toledo (a colleague of Al-Zarqali). After completing his mathematical education in Seville and because the continuing conflicts during the reconquesta he set out with his family to Alexandria and then Cairo in 1096.

Jacob Bruce:

Jacob Daniel Bruce was a Russian statesman, military leader and scientist of self-claimed Scottish descent, one of the associates of Peter the Great. According to his own record, his ancestors had lived in Russia since 1649. He participated in the Crimean (1687, 1689) and Azov campaigns (1695-1696) of Peter the Great against the Ottoman Empire during the Russo-Turkish War. During the Great Northern War Bruce was involved in the development of Russian artillery.

Eirenaeus Philalethes:

Eirenaeus Philalethes (the peaceful lover of truth) was a 17th century alchemist and the author of many influential works. These works were read by such luminaries as Isaac Newton, John Locke, and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Newton's extensive writings on alchemy are heavily indebted to Philalethes, although Newton incorporated significant modifications as well.

Ibn Rassam:

Ibn al-Rassam literally (Son of the Draftsman), was an Egyptian Muslim Alchemist and tile-maker and Mosaic designer, who flourished during the Mamluk Bahri dynasty (1250-1382). Ibn Rassam is widely known to have invented the techniques through which he obtained copper from varieties of malachite, he also ascertained indigo by heating various substances.

Abu Mansur Muwaffaq:

Abu Mansur Muwaffaq of Herat flourished in the 10th century, he was an influential Pharmacist and Alchemist. Abu Mansur Muwaffaq wrote The foundations of the true properties of Remedies, where he described 585 drugs. Due to water shortages in nearby regions he studied the properties of water and also described the distillation of sea-water for drinking. He traveled to Khwarezm and the Caspian and Aral Sea regions.

Al Simawi:

Abu al-Qasim Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Iraqi al-Simawi (d.1260?) was a Muslim Alchemist from Baghdad he carried various experiments was the famous author of Kitab al-lm al-muktasab fi zirat al-dhahab (The Book of Acquired Knowledge concerning the Cultivation of Gold). Al-Jildaki was deeply inspired by his works and wrote various commentaries and references regarding the works of Al-Simawi.

Wei Shifang:

Wei Shifang (died 695), also known as Wu Shifang, was briefly a chancellor during Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty. Wei Shifang had a highly unusual rise to his position. As of 694, Wu Zetian was said to be attracted to the teaching of three individuals involved in mystic teachings.

Paul Of Taranto:

Paul of Taranto was a 13th century Franciscan alchemist and author from southern Italy. Perhaps the most recognized of his works is his Theorica et practica, which defends alchemical principles by describing the theoretical and practical reasoning behind it. There is also evidence to suggest, however, that Paul is also the author of the much more widely known alchemical text Summa perfectionis, generally attributed to Geber.

Al Nabarawi:

Ibn Muhammad al-Shaizari Al-Nabarawi, Al-Nabarawi (d.1126) Muslim Pharmacist and Alchemist from Baghdad was a devoted admirer of Al-Razi, he invented a new process of producing Naphta (Naft), from Petrolium.

Al Khwarizmi Al Khati:

Abu al-Hakim Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik al-Salihi al-Khwarizmi al-Khati, Al-Khati (flourished 1034), was a Muslim alchemist from the village of Kath in Khwarazem region. He is known for systematizing Muslim alchemy. Al-Khati lived and worked in Baghdad and nearby, and wrote Ain al-San'a wa awn al-Sun^a (The essential of the Art and the Help for the Artisans). The work was crucial for the training of glass-makers, metallurgists, carpenters, and other craftsmen and artisans.


Paracelsus (born Phillippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, 11 November or 17 December 1493 in Einsiedeln - 24 September 1541 in Salzburg) was a Renaissance physician, botanist, alchemist, astrologer, and general occultist. "Paracelsus", meaning "equal to or greater than Celsus", refers to the Roman encyclopedist Aulus Cornelius Celsus from the first century known for his tract on medicine.


Thoth was considered one of the more important deities of the Egyptian pantheon. In art, he was often depicted as a man with the head of an ibis or a baboon; these animals were sacred to him. His feminine counterpart was Seshat. His chief shrine was located in the city of Khmun, later renamed Hermopolis Magna during the Greco-Roman era (in reference to him through the Greeks' interpretation that he was the same as their god Hermes) and Eshm^un^en in the Coptic rendering.

Manly Palmer Hall:

Manly Palmer Hall (March 18, 1901 - August 29, 1990) was a Canadian-born author and mystic. He is perhaps most famous for his work The Secret Teachings of All Ages: An Encyclopedic Outline of Masonic, Hermetic, Qabbalistic and Rosicrucian Symbolical Philosophy, published in 1928 when he was 27 years old. It is claimed that Hall was made a knight patron of the Masonic Research Group of San Francisco in 1953, although he was not raised as a Mason until 22 November 1954 into Jewel Lodge No.

Ali Puli:

Ali Puli, also known as Alipili, is the attributed author of a number of 17th-century alchemical and hermetic texts. However, his historical existence is doubtful, and A.E. Waite went as far as to describe the work attributed to him as "forgery pure and simple in respect of age and authorship [which which] may be left to stand at its value in the matter of content.

Balthasar Walther:

Balthasar Walther (1558 - c. 1631) was a Silesian physician and Christian Kabbalist of German ethnicity. Born in Liegnitz in modern Poland, Walther was a significant influence on the thought of the German theosopher Jakob B"ohme. As an itinerant Paracelsian enthusiast, Walther was active throughout the Holy Roman Empire, in Poland, Transylvania and elsewhere. He died in Paris sometime before December 1631.

Christian Rosenkreuz:

Christian Rosenkreuz is the legendary, perhaps allegorical, founder of the Rosicrucian Order (Order of the Rose Cross), presented in the three Manifestos published in the early 17th century. The first anonymous public document on the Rosicrucian Order is the Fama Fraternitatis Rosae Crucis which appeared in 1614 in Kassel, introducing the pilgrim founder "Frater C.R. C", followed in 1615 by the Confessio Fraternitatis (issued with Fama).

Chaldean Oracles:

The Chaldean Oracles have survived as fragmentary texts from the 2nd century AD, and consist mainly of Hellenistic commentary on a single mystery-poem (which may have been compilations from several oracular sources, considering the random subject changes) that was believed to have originated in Chaldea. They appear to be a syncretic combination of Neoplatonic elements with others that were Persian or Babylonian in origin. Later Neoplatonists, such as Proclus and Iamblichus, rated them highly.

Robert M Place:

Robert M. Place (born 1947) is an artist and author known for his work on tarot history, symbolism, and divination.

Werner Rolfinck:

Werner Rolfink was a German physician, scientist and botanist. He was a medical student in Leyden, Oxford, Paris and Padua. He earned his master's degree at the University of Wittenberg under Daniel Sennert, and his MD in 1625 at the University of Padua under the guidance of Adriaan van den Spiegel. In 1629, he became a professor at the University of Jena, where he rearranged and expanded the university's botanical garden.

Andrew Norman Meldrum:

Andrew Norman Meldrum was a Scottish scientist known for his work in organic chemistry and for his studies of the history of chemistry. It has been claimed that Meldrum's acid "is the only chemical to be named after a Scotsman. " He was educated at Gordon's College in Aberdeen, the Royal College of Science in London, and the University of Aberdeen. He taught at the universities of Aberdeen, Liverpool, Sheffield and Manchester, and entered the Indian Education Service in 1912.

Theodore William Richards:

Theodore William Richards (January 31, 1868 - April 2, 1928) was the first American scientist to receive the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, earning the award "in recognition of his exact determinations of the atomic weights of a large number of the chemical elements."

Helen Abbott Michael:

Helen Cecilia De Silver Abbott Michael, M.D. (December 23, 1857 - November 29, 1904) was an American scientist who was among the first to "in a systematic way study the relation of chemical composition to species of plants and to plant growth. " Michael theorized that the chemical composition of plants over the course of their development provided an illustration for the theory of evolution.

Arthur Michael:

Arthur Michael (August 7, 1853 - February 8, 1942) was an American organic chemist who is best known for the Michael reaction.


Poppers is a slang term for various alkyl nitrites inhaled for recreational purposes, particularly amyl nitrite, butyl nitrite, isopropyl nitrite and isobutyl nitrite. Amyl nitrite is used medically as an antidote to cyanide poisoning, but the term "poppers" refers specifically to recreational use. Amyl nitrite and several other alkyl nitrites, which are present in products such as air freshener and video head cleaner, are often inhaled with the goal of enhancing sexual pleasure.


Oxilorphan is an opioid antagonist from the morphinan family of drugs. Oxilorphan is a non-selective opioid which is a antagonist but a partial agonist. It has similar effects to naloxone, and around the same potency as an antagonist. Oxilorphan has some weak partial agonist effects and can produce hallucinogenic effects at high doses, suggesting some kappa opioid agonist action. It was trialled for the treatment of opiate addiction, but was not developed commercially.


Flumazenil (also known as flumazepil, code name Ro 15-1788, trade names Anexate, Lanexat, Mazicon, Romazicon) is a benzodiazepine antagonist. It was introduced in 1987 by Hoffmann-La Roche under the trade name Anexate.

Sodium Nitrite:

Sodium nitrite, with chemical formula NaNO2, is used as a color fixative and preservative in meats and fish. When pure, it is a white to slight yellowish crystalline powder. It is very soluble in water and is hygroscopic. It is also slowly oxidized by oxygen in the air to sodium nitrate, NaNO3. The compound is a strong oxidizing agent.

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