Abu Rayhan Biruni

Abu Rayhan Biruni Cover
Abu Rayan Muammad ibn Amad Biruni, often known as Alberonius in Latin, but also Al Beruni, Al Bayrooni or variants, (born 5 September 973 in Kath, Khwarezm, died 13 December 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian Muslim scholar and polymath of the 11th century. "A Persian by birth, Biruni produced his writings in Arabic, though he knew, besides Persian, no less than four other languages. " "A Persian by birth, a rationalist in disposition, this contemporary of Avicenna and Alhazen not only studied history, philosophy, and geography in depth, but wrote one of the most comprehensive of Muslim astronomical treatises, the Qanun Al-Masu'di. "; L. Massignon, "Al-Biruni et la valuer internationale de la science arabe" in Al-Biruni Commemoration Volume, (Calcutta, 1951). pp 217-219. " In a celebrated preface to the book of Drugs, Biruni says: And if it is true that in all nations one likes to adorn oneself by using the language to which one has remained loyal, having become accustomed to using it with friends and companions according to need, I must judge for myself that in my native Chorasmian, science has as much as chance of becoming perpetuated as a camel has of facing Kaaba. "; Gotthard Strohmaier, "Biruni" in Josef W. Meri, Jere L. Bacharach, "Medieval Islamic Civilization: A-K, index:Volume 1 of Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia", Taylor & Francis, 2006. excerpt from page 112:"Although his native Khwarezmian was also an Iranian language, he rejected the emerging neo-Persian literature of his time (Firdawsi), preferring Arabic instead as the only adequate medium of science. "; Biruni was a polymath with an interest in various practical and scholarly fields that relate to what nowadays is described as physics, anthropology, comparative sociology, astronomy, astrology, chemistry, history, geography, mathematics, medicine, psychology, philosophy, and theology. He was the first Muslim scholar to study India and the Brahminical tradition, and has been described as the founder of Indology, and "the first anthropologist". He was one of the first exponents of an experimental method of investigation, introducing this method into mechanics and what is nowadays called mineralogy, psychology, and astronomy. Biruni has for example been described as "one of the very greatest scientists of [the Islamic world], and, all considered, one of the greatest of all times. ", or as "one of the great scientific minds in all history. " The crater Al-Biruni on the Moon is named after him. Tashkent Technical University (formerly Tashkent Polytechnic Institute) is also named after Abu Rayhan al-Biruni and a university founded by Ahmad Shah Massoud in Kapisa is named after him.

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